see also Thrush, Oral Thrush
Candidiasis is caused by Candida albicans, a member of the yeast family. Under normal conditions it is harmless, but given optimal conditions it is capable of explosive growth, and can increase itself from 1 to 100 cells in 24 hours. These 100 cells can then produce 100 each in the next 24 hours, and so on. Apart from the bowel, it also likes the vagina and the skin. It has no helpful function, and is a pure parasite. The majority of infants will show a positive reaction by the age of 6 months if skin-tested for Candida, showing that their immune system has been challenged to respond by producing immuno-globulins. It has been estimated that approximately 30 per cent of everybody in the world over 12 years - especially women - is suffering from yeast-related illnesses because of Candida.
Studies have found a strong correlation between vaginal and intestinal cultures of Candida, and it is thought that unrestricted spread of the organism may be the single most important predisposing factor in vulvo-vaginal candidiasis or thrush. It is interesting that there has been a 2-fold increase in the relative frequency and total incidence of vaginitis since approximately 1970, which corresponds to a decrease in incidence of gonorrhoea and trichomonal vaginitis. The single most likely reason for this is the increased use of antibiotics, both therapeutically in humans, and as sub-therapeutic doses in animal feeds.
The Role of Antibiotics
Repeated courses on antibiotics given therapeutically, for instance for acne, Cystitis or upper respiratory tract infections, disrupt the normal competition between separate members of the resident flora of the gut; in other words the normal balance of organisms in the bowel is upset. Candida is thus allowed to proliferate.
Sub-therapeutic amounts of antibiotics added to animal feeds, to promote rapid enhanced meat production, inevitably lead to acquired resistance by certain microbes in the gut to the antibiotics used. Increasing resistance of the salmonella population led in the 1960s and 70s to those antibiotics which were routinely used therapeutically being banned in the UK and EEC in animal feed. It was thought that the practice could lead to cross-resistance, i.e. certain microbes might acquire resistance to more than one antibiotic. In addition the stimulation of growth of yeasts was also inevitable.
Other Predisposing Factors
These include: an underlying inherited or acquired immune system deficiency, which may be due to a nutritional deficiency; increased demands on the immune system to combat environmental pollution; or damage to the immune system e.g., AIDS. Metabolic causes include diabetes mellitis (due to an increase in blood sugar), and raised vaginal alkalinity found in pregnancy, especially after multiple pregnancies. Drugs which exert an immuno-suppressive affect such as steroids (including hormone residues in meat), oral contraceptives (the pill), and immuno-suppressive drugs (such as those used to treat cancer) can also contribute to Candida. The progesterone component of the pill appears to encourage Candida growth, which is particularly noticeable in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Candidiasis can also follow the onset of allergies, and will resolve after the allergy has been treated.
Local predisposing causes include: underwear with non-cotton crotch, nylon tights (which promote the vulvo-vaginal warmth and moistness on which Candida thrives), tight fitting jeans, vaginal deodorants, scented toilet tissues, etc. Sexual intercourse without enough lubrication can also predispose to it.
Symptoms spread throughout the body are many and varied, and include recurrent cystitis and recurrent ‘thrush vaginitis’ (vaginal soreness and itching with associated curdlike discharge which has a vinegar or yeast-like odour, and possible discomfort on intercourse). It is also associated with vulval itching. There may be Oral Thrush, painful irregular periods, Premenstrual Syndrome, endometriosis, low libido, and Infertility. In the abdomen there may be Indigestion, Nausea, flatulence, bloating, Diarrhoea, Constipation or rectal itching. There is often a craving for sugar and refined carbohydrates or alcohol and yeasty food such as bread and cheese. These give a transient pick-up effect and then sudden energy loss (i.e., Hypoglycaemia).
The sufferer may have recurrent sore throat and nasal congestion, dizziness, fatigue, lethargy, blurring of vision and Headaches. Mental effects include irritability, Anxiety, Depression, feelings of unreality, poor memory and hyperactivity.
There is a resulting wide range of both inhalational and food allergies. The skin complaints include acne, Psoriasis, Dermatitis, hives, athlete’s foot and brittle, brown, discoloured nails. Aching, numbness and tingling of the muscles or aching pain and swelling in the joints is also possible. There is often a noticeable worsening of symptoms on damp days or in mouldy damp environments, i.e., damp earth or cellars. Finally, poor nutrient absorption and assimilation are likely. The above symptoms have been reported in classical attacks of Candida.
In addition the women in our survey reported Boils on the buttocks, deterioration of symptoms in the Menopause, difficulty in concentration and in making decisions, swelling of the breasts, Weight Gain, bartholinitis, ulcers on the labia, facial hair, cracking of the skin on the labia, backache, burning pain in the eyes.
Apart from oral and vaginal thrush which can be diagnosed from a swab, there is no definitive test for candidiasis. Diagnosis largely rests on history and symptoms and eventually on the success or otherwise of the treatment. There is, however, a test available in certain laboratories such as BioLab. In this, the Gut Fermentation Test, the patient fasts overnight and a blood alcohol level is taken. She is then given a loading dose of sugar (taken by mouth); the alcohol level is measured an hour later, along with short-branch fatty acids. If there has been a rise in alcohol level it will be because the sugar has been fermented into alcohol either by a fungus or a bacteria in the gut. By looking at the types of short-branch fatty acids present it is possible to tell whether the likely organism is bacterial or fungal.
Candida produces its effects by two routes. Firstly, there is a direct route initially by invasion of the gut and the vagina; Candida is capable of spreading along the entire length of the gut. The presence of chronic vaginitis can often indicate wide-spread candidiasis. Secondly, there can be indirect effects caused by spread of toxins through the bloodstream to other sites. In the gut Candida can alter its form from a simple yeast organism to a ‘mycelial fungal form’, a network of root-like fibres called rhizoids. These can penetrate and damage the gut lining, allowing foreign food proteins to be absorbed into the bloodstream and to challenge the immune system so that multiple food allergy may result.
Toxic waste from Candida infestations can also be absorbed into the bloodstream, producing a range of symptoms as above; some of the most disturbing may be those affecting the brain. Yeast toxin hypersensitivity can lead to anxiety, depression and impaired intellectual functioning. This is often not recognized as a candidal problem, and psychiatric referral is the result, which may be unsuccessful, and increase feelings of guilt, poor self-esteem and depression. In addition to the toxins produced by the Candida organism itself, it can also affect the brain by way of the toxic substances manufactured from sugar and refined carbohydrates in the diet. The main substance implicated here is acetaldehyde, which is a normal by-product of metabolism, produced in small amounts and rendered harmless by the liver. If, however, there is excess production of this by Candida and/or a lack of the appropriate liver enzymes which tend to be deficient in 5 per cent of the general population, the acetaldehyde will become bound strongly to human tissue. This may cause impaired neuro-transmission in the brain, resulting in Anxiety, Depression, defective memory and cloudy thinking.
Effects on the Immune System
As an opportunist, Candida is dependent on conditions which favour its steady growth. An immune system already undermined by other factors such as poor nutrition or exposure to environmental pollutants will be unable effectively to deter this relentless growth. Thus Candida will in turn effectively weaken and disturb the immune system so that further damage may occur due to the invasion of viral agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex and so on. Disturbance of the ongoing process of ‘self recognition’ by the immune system is likely to lead further to the possibility of a range of auto-immune diseases.
A note on the immune system
The main components of the immune system are:
- B-lymphocytes: these produce proteins called immunoglobulins, which bind antigenic substances and render them harmless. An antigen is a substance which the body recognizes as being alien and therefore potentially harmful. An immunoglobulins is a particular kind of protein which coats the antigen; by being made harmless the antigens can then be digested by other cells.
- T-lymphocytes; there are three types:
a. Killer cells; these attack and destroy substances with enzymes and hormones
b. Helper cells; these help B cells to make the immunoglobulins
c. Suppressor cells; these protect the body from the excesses of the body’s defence system
T-cell efficiency can be influenced to a useful extent by nutrition. It is largely the suppressors which are involved in fighting the Candida challenge, partly because Candida’s adaptability allows it to produce disguising antigens which deter the immune system from recognizing it as foreign and harmful. In this way the immune system may eventually become non-responsive to the presence of Candida albicans. Candida toxins will then circulate virtually unchallenged, and Candida will grow in a range of tissues either as a yeast or a mycelial fungus. This apparent tolerance of Candida by the immune system can only be reversed in the long term by ending exposure of the body to yeast antigens and toxins. A high percentage of serum from symptomless people has been found to contain yeast toxin immunoglobulins. This indicates that the B-cell immune defences must be constantly counteracting Candida toxin. When alive, yeasts are able to invade the immune system to a certain degree. When they are killed, proteins making up the yeast cell wall are absorbed through the lining of the intestine and can cause heightened allergy reactions, resulting in a phenomenon called ‘Die off’ or the ‘Herxheimer reaction’. This may in fact signal a good response to treatment.
Allergic symptoms emerging as a result of weakness in the immune system may develop over a long period, or may proceed relatively quickly. This process seems to originate from the impaired production and function of the T-cell lymphocytes which can no longer effectively regulate B-cell immunoglobulin production. As a result the body cannot discriminate between harmless and potentially toxic agents.
Candida toxin tends to cause its effects by production of ‘free radicals’ (a kind of rogue molecule which can cause damage to cell membranes so that function is impaired). Thus, for example, the liver’s detoxifying capability is likely to be impaired, so that the potentially toxic foreign substances are more likely to produce damage or reaction. It has been proposed, for instance, that increased sensitivity to mercury amalgam fillings may develop due to prior damage from Candida toxins.
The Candida syndrome appears to be more symptomatic in women, possibly due to its ability to upset the female hormone balance. It seems that Candida can bind to adrenal steroids so that adrenal insufficiency may result. It can also be associated with ovarian and thyroid disorders, i.e. oophoritis (inflammation of the ovaries) and hypothyroidism, due to thyroiditis or inflammation of the thyroid (see below and Thyroid Problems). In the latter condition there may be no signs of thyroid swelling (Goitre) and all thyroid function tests may be normal. It may, however, be suspected from a history of fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, Constipation, and irregular periods and it responds well to anticandidal treatment.
Similarly candidiasis can be associated with a range of auto-immune disorders apart from thyroiditis - the most commonly associated condition of Candida - along with impairment of the immune system. Other conditions include Rheumatoid Arthritis. In such cases there may be a significant sequence of symptoms stretching right back to childhood including infant colic, childhood allergies, recurrent course of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections, increased symptoms of allergy in adolescents, fatigue, PMS, irregular periods, pain on intercourse and endometriosis, depression and anxiety.
N.B. All irritating or offensive discharges should be checked by a doctor for infection other than thrush before starting any self-help measures.
In the author’s opinion, constitutional homeopathic treatment is the single most effective treatment for deep-seated Candida but it tends only to work to its best effect when combined with other measures as follows:
- Anti-Candida Diet. This is essential for the long-term control of Candida, because diet is one of the main precipitants of the condition.
- Yeast growth must be eliminated in order to allow for strengthening of the immune system
- Optimal nourishment is required to rebuild and replace tissues damaged by Candida infestation
The two main principles are elimination of foods derived from or containing yeast or fungi, and a reduction of foods rich in refined carbohydrates. On average, the diet needs to be stuck to for at least 3 months, whereupon, if there is a clear improvement in symptoms, it should be possible to experiment gradually with the reintroduction of the forbidden foods. A recurrence of symptoms will indicate that the offending food must be eliminated for longer. (For further details see Anti-Candida Diet in the Special Diets section).
Anti-Candidal Nutritional Supplements
- Lactobacillus acidophilus
Culture of the bacteria normally found in the gut. It can be obtained as a powder, capsules or in live yoghurt, especially BA or Bio yoghurts. Conventional wisdom is that these supplements are a waste of time as they will be destroyed by the acid and other enzymes in the secretions of the gut, and would never reach the parts they are intended to. However, it may well be that in women with Candida and other chronic illnesses, the acid and enzyme production is sufficiently impaired to allow a significant amount to get through and recolonize. It counters yeast growth by preventing mycelial extension, and is also capable of producing natural antibiotics which are effective against food-borne disease organisms.
- Olive Oil
Two teaspoons 3 times a day helps to prevent mycelial extension
One of the lesser-known B vitamins, this helps to prevent mycelial extension of fungi i.e., candida. It is found in meats, dairy products and whole grain cereals. It is possible to become deficient in biotin when on long-term antibiotics and by eating large amounts of raw egg, which contains a substance which counteracts biotin. (See also Nutritional Supplements section).
Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, due to its allicin content. Onions and cloves have similar properties. Garlic is best taken in the form of capsules.
- Caprylic Acid
Coconut-derived fatty acid which has been found to help restore the normal balance of yeast bacteria in the colon. It has strong anti-fungal effects and must be administered in a slow release form to have effect on the candida. It is sold under the brand name of Caprystatin. Clinical studies have shown the disappearance of Candida from stool specimens within a few days. Caprystatin should be taken in increasing doses over several weeks, and then maintenance dose taken for several months.
Immunity-Enhancing Nutritional Supplements
see also Nutritional Supplements
- Vitamin C 1-3 g a day
- Vitamin A best taken in the form of beta carotene 10,000 units a day
- Vitamin E 200-44 international units a day
- Vitamin B complex 1 capsule a day
- Calcium pantothenate (B5) 500 mg a day (this is particularly advisable if allergic symptoms are present)
- Folic acid 20-50 mcg a day ( this is important for the correct differentiation of T-lymphocytes into suppressive and killer cells)
- Selenium 100 mcg a day
- Zinc 20-25 mg a day (this should be taken at night)
- Magnesium 250 mg a day
- Evening Primrose oil 250 1-3 times a day (this is advisable since Candida toxins can interfere with fatty acid production, in turn important for T-cell production)
N.B. All supplements must be labelled Yeast Free. As with all supplements, after one month leave them off at weekends unless advised not to by your homeopath or nutritionist.
Doctor prescribable only. It is an anti-fungal antibiotic which kills or arrests the growth of a wide range of yeast and yeast-like fungi. It is lethal to yeast on contact, but yeast embedded in the gut wall might be relatively unaffected. Nystatin is available as a powder - which is probably the most effective - as tablets or drops for Candida in the gut, or as a suspension for babies. It is also available creams, ointments and powder for surface areas. Although virtually non-toxic, and cheap, some patients may become dependent on it and weaning can be difficult. It also tastes like potting compost! Along with other anti-Candida drugs it can only deal with the short-term situation. The bowel must be adjusted by diet and Lactobacilli, and the immune system must be strengthened. The average length of a course is 3 months. The maintenance dosage is ¼ -½ hourly teaspoonful 4 times a day but the dosage is fairly individual. It is not absorbed through the gut wall.
- Amphotericin (Fungilin)
Doctor prescribable only, this drug is more widely used in Europe than the UK. It acts in a similar way to Nystatin, but is absorbed and can be highly toxic, causing kidney damage. It should be used very selectively.
- Diflucan (Fluconazole)
Doctor prescribable only, this is a highly effective anti-fungal which is absorbed and can deal with candida anywhere in the body. As with all the other anti-candidal drugs, however, the Candida will quickly come back unless the bowel flora has been adjusted and the immune system strengthened. For this reason the author does not recommend it except at the end of a course of more natural anti-candidal measures. It can be given in a single high does or a lesser dose over a period of days. Fluconazole is a relatively new drug, but as a similar drug caused liver damage when given over a long period of time, Fluconazole should also be used cautiously.
If a Candida-syndrome patient does not respond well to the measures above it may be advisable to attempt to influence the immune system’s reactivity directly with regard to Candida, particularly if there is an associated multiple allergy syndrome. This can be done in two ways.
- Neutralizing Dose Immunotherapy
A highly complex therapy, which takes advanced training and experience for success.
This treatment is not advised for the patient acutely overloaded with candida, and so would tend not to be used as a first-line treatment. In any case, for lasting symptom relief the diet and supplements are essential. Neither should it be used in the presence of auto-immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis because of the likelihood of aggravation.
- EPD (Enzyme Potentiated Desensitization)
An injected desensitisation technique relatively lacking in side-effects, since it uses extremely small doses of allergens compared with traditional forms of skin testing and desensitization. Each injection must be associated with a strict low food allergen diet for 24 hours before and after. Allergy grief is likely to occur in 80 per cent of patients.
Apart from the doctor-prescribed pessaries and creams such as Nystatin and Canesten there are various effective measures which may be applied. In the second half of the menstrual cycle - for instance, when Candida is encouraged by hormonal changes - or in circumstances where repeated sexual intercourse may cause both Candida and Cystitis, try the following measures:
- Yoghurt douches: one pot natural live yoghurt to 1.75 litres (3 pints) boiled cooled water, douche 3 times a day or use Acidophilus powder, ½ teaspoonful to 8 oz water.
- Douches of vinegar or lemon juice
- Acigel, available in any chemist
- Extract of garlic douche using odourless form, i.e., Kyolic
- Always remember to treat your partner as well. A man may carry thrush under the foreskin, as a result of transfer from a partner with vaginal thrush; he may be unaware of this and may also re-infect his partner. He may notice burning, itching, redness and irritation around the head of the penis shortly after intercourse, but it is generally self-limiting. It may represent a hypersensitivity reaction to Candida toxin or antigen.
Many people suffering from this syndrome have poorly functioning organs of elimination. When cellular waste products accumulate in the bloodstream the individual feels ill in herself and cannot effectively absorb the nutrients provided by the Candida control diet and nutrition supplements. The main detoxification organ is the liver. In addition to the usual metabolic waste, the liver also helps to remove from the body environmental pollutants and other toxins. Any toxins in the bowel may be removed using the colon cleansing regime. Coffee enemas help to cleanse the colon, as coffee makes a good solvent for encrusted waste in the wall of the large bowel. They also seem to stimulate the functioning of the liver and gall bladder which helps to eliminate toxic wastes.
The concept of Candida infection affecting other systems of the body apart from the bowel and vagina is a contentious one, and most orthodox doctors do not believe it is in its power to do so. This is understandable, as there is no reliable test for Candida outside the vagina, mouth and possibly bowel. Indirect confirmation of the hypothesis, however, comes from work being done in infants. This shows that in the early days of life at least they have a leaky bowel, allowing larger fragments of protein than would normally be absorbed to get into the bloodstream and set up an antigen-antibody response. As you will have seen, it is thought that Candida may work in a similar fashion. Certainly the author has noted an improvement in patients who do follow an anti-Candida regime where indicated.
Constitutional treatment is recommended.
Specific remedies to be taken in the 6c potency 6 times a day for up to 5 days
Marked vaginal itching associated with cervical erosion; discharge is yellow, or milky, with itching of vagina before periods; thrush worse before and after periods; burning discharge with inflammation of the vulva - worse on becoming warm - worse during pregnancy; depression; anxiety; dizziness; chronic headache - worse before periods; burning pains; appetite increased; dull, aching pain in abdomen; frequent urination; itching worse after passing urine; heavy periods; chronic vaginitis; vaginal warts; swollen tender breasts pre-menstrually; backache; stiff neck; dry skin.
Generalities: Symptoms worse before periods; weakness; tendency to put on weight.
Very offensive discharges with marked vaginal and vulval itching; soreness and burning in vagina; cervical erosion possible; ulcers on labia; vaginal discharge after sexual intercourse; very irritating, burning or smarting yellow discharge - worse before and after periods; vulval inflammation - worse for stress - worse during pregnancy; weepiness before periods; difficulty in concentrating; depression; chronic headache; anal fissure; distended abdomen; urgent need to urinate; chronic vaginitis; sharp, stinging pains in womb - worse in menopause; backache; itchy skin.
Generalities: Weariness - worse between 3-5 pm - worse on walking.
Very offensive discharge causing marked itching; vaginal soreness - worse for stress; itchiness in vulva; yellow or white discharge; itchy vagina before periods; vaginal discharge after periods; burning or stinging discharge; burning pain in vagina; pain in vagina during intercourse; pain and discharge worse in the week before the period; chronic headache - worse before periods; burning pains in eyes; appetite increased; irritable bowel syndrome; offensive wind; itching around the back passage; cramping pains in abdomen; pinching sensation around navel; frequent urination with urge to urinate; pain in urethra after urination; general thickening of skin of vulva from itching - worse in menopause; backache; pain in neck radiating to shoulder; swollen fingers; dry and itchy skin.
Generalities: Tendency to put on weight; thrush worse during convalescence from another acute illness; weariness.
Vaginal soreness; thrush worse pre-menstrually; ulcers on the labia; very irritating discharge; itching in vagina pre-menstrually; vaginal discharge after periods; burning pain in vagina; chronic thickening of skin of vulva from scratching; difficulty with concentration; indecisiveness; depression; appetite increased; dull aching pain in abdomen; anal fissure; frequent urination; menopause; backache; especially in neck; swollen fingers; dry itchy skin.
Generalities: Tendency to put on weight; weariness - worse after periods.
Vaginal soreness associated with possible cervical erosion; very irritating burning discharge - worse in pregnancy; burning smarting pain in vagina; discharge after periods; watery, cloudy discharge - worse before and after periods - worse lying down; weepiness before periods; indecisiveness; dizziness; chronic headache - worse before periods; burning pains in eyes; appetite increased; bloated abdomen pre-menstrually; irritable bowel syndrome; offensive wind; frequent urination; urgent need to urinate; chronic cystitis; pain in urethra after urinating; heavy periods - worse at menopause; chronic vaginitis; tender breasts; backache; swollen fingers; itchy skin.
Thrush - worse for stress; very irritating vaginal discharge - worse after periods, with itching; chronic thickening of the skin of vulva from scratching; weepiness before and after periods; difficulty in concentrating; anxiety; dizziness; headaches pre-menstrually; appetite increased; bloated abdomen pre-menstrually; dull aching pain in abdomen; irritable bowel syndrome; itching around back passage; frequent urination; chronic cystitis; genital warts; backache; neck stiffness; swollen fingers; dry and itchy skin.
Generalities: Worse before periods; tendency to put on weight; weariness - worse before periods.
- Carbo veg.
Very offensive itchy, greenish, burning discharge - worse from becoming hot, associated with possible cervical erosion, itching of vulva, with cracks; worse in pregnancy; discharge during and after periods; difficulty in concentrating ; depression; anxiety; headache pre-menstrually; burning pains; dull, aching pain in abdomen; offensive wind; itchy skin.
Very irritating, stringy offensive discharge with marked itching and burning soreness of vagina; possible cervical erosion - worse for stress; itching in vagina before periods; burning discharge; inflammation of vulva; chronic headache; dull aching pain in abdomen; frequent urination; chronic vaginitis; genital warts; tender breasts; swollen fingers; itchy skin.
Generalities: Weariness; chills alternating with sweats.
- Natrum mur.
Marked itching - worse becoming warm - worse for stress; burning pain in vagina; vaginal pain during intercourse; weepiness before periods; dizziness; chronic headache - worse before periods; burning pains in eyes; increased appetite; irritable bowel syndrome; offensive wind; urgent need to urinate; backache; itchy skin.
Generalities: Weariness - worse before periods.
- Nitric ac.
Very offensive irritating, stringy, greenish or pinkish discharge - worse after periods; marked vaginal itching, and burning soreness; possible cervical erosion, worse for stress; ulcers and cracks on labia; inflammation of vulva; chronic headache irritable bowel syndrome; offensive wind; anal fissure; heavy periods; genital warts; neck stiffness; swollen fingers.
Possible cervical erosion; ulcers on labia; very irritating offensive, yellow burning vaginal discharge; chronic thickening of skin of vulva due to scratching; depression; anxiety; chronic headaches; burning pains in eyes; increase in appetite; dull aching pains in abdomen; irritable bowel syndrome; offensive wind; pain in the neck; swollen fingers; dry and itchy skin.
Generalities: Weakness; tendency to put on weight.
Very offensive itchy, milky, or yellow, irritating discharge, smelly like rye bread; vaginal soreness and burning; possible cervical erosion - worse pre-menstrually, preceded by flushed face and pains in small of back - worse after periods; pain in vagina during intercourse; inflamed vulva with chronic thickening of the skin due to scratching; headache pre-menstrually; bloated abdomen after periods; heavy periods; chronic vaginitis.
Generalities: Great weakness - worse after periods.
Burning discharge - worse during pregnancy; difficulty in concentrating; indecisiveness; depression; chronic headache - worse before periods; bloated abdomen pre-menstrually; irritable bowel syndrome; offensive wind; frequent urination; heavy periods - worse at menopause; neck stiffness.
Generalities: Weariness - symptoms worse before and after periods.
Very offensive discharge - worse on becoming warm - worse for stress - worse during pregnancy; difficulty in concentrating; dizziness; chronic headache; increased appetite; irritable bowel syndrome; itching around back passage; frequent urination; urgency of urination; pain in urethra after urination; heavy periods; backache; neck stiffness.
Generalities: Weariness - symptoms worse after periods.
- Kali carb.
Vaginal soreness; itching in vagina worse before periods; pain in vagina during intercourse - worse becoming warm - worse for stress; depression and anxiety; burning pain in eyes; dull aching pain in abdomen; irritable bowel syndrome; urge to urinate; swollen breasts pre-menstrually; backache; neck stiffness; dry skin.
Generalities: Tendency to put on weight - worse before periods; weariness - worse in afternoon.
Other Remedies to Consider
- Frequent, copious, straw-coloured discharge which causes vulva itch and smart and washing in cold water, discharge worse before and after period Alumina 30c
- Discharge transparent like egg white and highly irritant, scalded feeling on inside of thighs Borax 30c
- Yellowish, burning discharge Carbo an. 30c